Windows Sockets

An Open Interface for Network Programming under Microsoft Windows

Version 1.1

20 January 1993

Table of Contents


Appendix A. Error Codes and Header Files

A.1 Error Codes

The following is a list of possible error codes returned by the WSAGetLastError() call, along with their explanations. The error numbers are consistently set across all Windows Sockets-compliant implementations.
Windows Sockets     Berkeley         Error   Interpretation
code                equivalent

WSAEINTR            EINTR            10004   As in standard C
WSAEBADF            EBADF            10009   As in standard C
WSAEACCES           EACCES           10013   As in standard C
WSAEFAULT           EFAULT           10014   As in standard C
WSAEINVAL           EINVAL           10022   As in standard C
WSAEMFILE           EMFILE           10024   As in standard C
WSAEWOULDBLOCK      EWOULDBLOCK      10035   As in BSD
WSAEINPROGRESS      EINPROGRESS      10036   This error is returned if
                                             any Windows Sockets API
                                             function is called while
                                             a blocking function is in
                                             progress.
WSAEALREADY         EALREADY         10037   As in BSD
WSAENOTSOCK         ENOTSOCK         10038   As in BSD
WSAEDESTADDRREQ     EDESTADDRREQ     10039   As in BSD
WSAEMSGSIZE         EMSGSIZE         10040   As in BSD
WSAEPROTOTYPE       EPROTOTYPE       10041   As in BSD
WSAENOPROTOOPT      ENOPROTOOPT      10042   As in BSD
WSAEPROTONOSUPPORT  EPROTONOSUPPORT  10043   As in BSD
WSAESOCKTNOSUPPORT  ESOCKTNOSUPPORT  10044   As in BSD
WSAEOPNOTSUPP       EOPNOTSUPP       10045   As in BSD
WSAEPFNOSUPPORT     EPFNOSUPPORT     10046   As in BSD
WSAEAFNOSUPPORT     EAFNOSUPPORT     10047   As in BSD
WSAEADDRINUSE       EADDRINUSE       10048   As in BSD
WSAEADDRNOTAVAIL    EADDRNOTAVAIL    10049   As in BSD
WSAENETDOWN         ENETDOWN         10050   As in BSD.  This error may be
                                             reported at any time if the
                                             Windows Sockets implementation
                                             detects an underlying failure.
WSAENETUNREACH      ENETUNREACH      10051   As in BSD
WSAENETRESET        ENETRESET        10052   As in BSD
WSAECONNABORTED     ECONNABORTED     10053   As in BSD
WSAECONNRESET       ECONNRESET       10054   As in BSD
WSAENOBUFS          ENOBUFS          10055   As in BSD
WSAEISCONN          EISCONN          10056   As in BSD
WSAENOTCONN         ENOTCONN         10057   As in BSD
WSAESHUTDOWN        ESHUTDOWN        10058   As in BSD
WSAETOOMANYREFS     ETOOMANYREFS     10059   As in BSD
WSAETIMEDOUT        ETIMEDOUT        10060   As in BSD
WSAECONNREFUSED     ECONNREFUSED     10061   As in BSD
WSAELOOP            ELOOP            10062   As in BSD
WSAENAMETOOLONG     ENAMETOOLONG     10063   As in BSD
WSAEHOSTDOWN        EHOSTDOWN        10064   As in BSD
WSAEHOSTUNREACH     EHOSTUNREACH     10065   As in BSD
WSASYSNOTREADY                       10091   Returned by WSAStartup() 
                                             indicating that the network 
                                             subsystem is unusable.
WSAVERNOTSUPPORTED                   10092   Returned by WSAStartup() 
                                             indicating that the Windows
                                             Sockets DLL cannot support
                                             this app.
WSANOTINITIALISED                    10093   Returned by any function
                                             except WSAStartup()
                                             indicating that a 
                                             successful WSAStartup()
                                             has not yet been performed.
WSAHOST_NOT_FOUND   HOST_NOT_FOUND   11001   As in BSD.
WSATRY_AGAIN        TRY_AGAIN        11002   As in BSD
WSANO_RECOVERY      NO_RECOVERY      11003   As in BSD
WSANO_DATA          NO_DATA          11004   As in BSD
The first set of definitions is present to resolve contentions between standard C error codes which may be defined inconsistently between various C compilers.

The second set of definitions provides Windows Sockets versions of regular Berkeley Sockets error codes.

The third set of definitions consists of extended Windows Sockets-specific error codes.

The fourth set of errors are returned by Windows Sockets getXbyY() and WSAAsyncGetXByY() functions, and correspond to the errors which in Berkeley software would be returned in the h_errno variable. They correspond to various failures which may be returned by the Domain Name Service. If the Windows Sockets implementation does not use the DNS, it will use the most appropriate code. In general, a Windows Sockets application should interpret WSAHOST_NOT_FOUND and WSANO_DATA as indicating that the key (name, address, etc.) was not found,, while WSATRY_AGAIN and WSANO_RECOVERY suggest that the name service itself is non-operational.

The error numbers are derived from the winsock.h header file listed in section A.2.2, and are based on the fact that Windows Sockets error numbers are computed by adding 10000 to the "normal" Berkeley error number.

Note that this table does not include all of the error codes defined in winsock.h. This is because it includes only errors which might reasonably be returned by a Windows Sockets implementation: winsock.h, on the other hand, includes a full set of BSD definitions to ensure compatibility with ported software.

A.2 Header Files

A.2.1 Berkeley Header Files

A Windows Sockets supplier who provides a development kit to support the development of Windows Sockets applications must supply a set of vestigial header files with names that match a number of the header files in the Berkeley software distribution. These files are provided for source code compatibility only, and each consists of three lines:
 
    #ifndef _WINSOCKAPI_ 
    #include <winsock.h> 
    #endif 
The header files provided for compatibility are: The file winsock.h contains all of the type and structure definitions, constants, macros, and function prototypes used by the Windows Sockets specification. An application writer may choose to ignore the compatibility headers and include winsock.h in each source file.

A.2.2 Windows Sockets Header File - winsock.h

The winsock.h header file includes a number of types and definitions from the standard Windows header file windows.h. The windows.h in the Windows 3.0 SDK (Software Developer's Kit) lacks a #include guard, so if you need to include windows.h as well as winsock.h, you should define the symbol _INC_WINDOWS before #including winsock.h, as follows:
 
    #include <windows.h> 
    #define _INC_WINDOWS 
    #include <winsock.h> 
Users of the SDK for Windows 3.1 and later need not do this.

A Windows Sockets DLL vendor MUST NOT make any modifications to this header file which could impact binary compatibility of Windows Sockets applications. The constant values, function parameters and return codes, and the like must remain consistent across all Windows Sockets DLL vendors.

    /* WINSOCK.H--definitions to be used with the WINSOCK.DLL 
    * 
    * This header file corresponds to version 1.1 of the Windows Sockets specification. 
    * 
    * This file includes parts which are Copyright (c) 1982-1986 Regents 
    * of the University of California.  All rights reserved.  The 
    * Berkeley Software License Agreement specifies the terms and 
    * conditions for redistribution. 
    */ 

    #ifndef _WINSOCKAPI_ 
    #define _WINSOCKAPI_ 

    /* 
    * Pull in WINDOWS.H if necessary 
    */ 
    #ifndef _INC_WINDOWS 
    #include <windows.h> 
    #endif /* _INC_WINDOWS */ 

    /* 
    * Basic system type definitions, taken from the BSD file sys/types.h. 
    */ 
    typedef unsigned char   u_char; 
    typedef unsigned short  u_short; 
    typedef unsigned int    u_int; 
    typedef unsigned long   u_long; 

    /* 
    * The new type to be used in all 
    * instances which refer to sockets. 
    */ 
    typedef u_int           SOCKET; 

    /* 
    * Select uses arrays of SOCKETs.  These macros manipulate such 
    * arrays.  FD_SETSIZE may be defined by the user before including 
    * this file, but the default here should be >= 64. 
    * 
    * CAVEAT IMPLEMENTOR and USER: THESE MACROS AND TYPES MUST BE 
    * INCLUDED IN WINSOCK.H EXACTLY AS SHOWN HERE. 
    */ 
    #ifndef FD_SETSIZE 
    #define FD_SETSIZE      64 
    #endif /* FD_SETSIZE */ 

    typedef struct fd_set { 
            u_short fd_count;               /* how many are SET? */ 
            SOCKET  fd_array[FD_SETSIZE];   /* an array of SOCKETs */ 
    } fd_set; 

    extern int PASCAL FAR __WSAFDIsSet(SOCKET, fd_set FAR *); 

    #define FD_CLR(fd, set) do { \ 
        u_int __i; \ 
        for (__i = 0; __i < ((fd_set FAR *)(set))->fd_count ; __i++) { \ 
            if (((fd_set FAR *)(set))->fd_array[__i] == fd) { \ 
                while (__i < ((fd_set FAR *)(set))->fd_count-1) { \ 
                    ((fd_set FAR *)(set))->fd_array[__i] = \ 
                        ((fd_set FAR *)(set))->fd_array[__i+1]; \ 
                    __i++; \ 
                } \ 
                ((fd_set FAR *)(set))->fd_count--; \ 
                break; \ 
            } \ 
        } \ 
    } while(0) 

    #define FD_SET(fd, set) do { \ 
        if (((fd_set FAR *)(set))->fd_count < FD_SETSIZE) \ 
            ((fd_set FAR *)(set))->fd_array[((fd_set FAR *)(set))->fd_count++]=fd;\ 
    } while(0) 

    #define FD_ZERO(set) (((fd_set FAR *)(set))->fd_count=0) 

    #define FD_ISSET(fd, set) __WSAFDIsSet((SOCKET)fd, (fd_set FAR *)set) 

    /* 
    * Structure used in select() call, taken from the BSD file sys/time.h. 
    */ 
    struct timeval { 
            long    tv_sec;         /* seconds */ 
            long    tv_usec;        /* and microseconds */ 
    }; 

    /* 
    * Operations on timevals. 
    * 
    * NB: timercmp does not work for >= or <=. 
    */ 
    #define timerisset(tvp)         ((tvp)->tv_sec || (tvp)->tv_usec) 
    #define timercmp(tvp, uvp, cmp) \ 
            ((tvp)->tv_sec cmp (uvp)->tv_sec || \ 
            (tvp)->tv_sec == (uvp)->tv_sec && (tvp)->tv_usec cmp (uvp)->tv_usec) 
    #define timerclear(tvp)         (tvp)->tv_sec = (tvp)->tv_usec = 0 

    /* 
    * Commands for ioctlsocket(),  taken from the BSD file fcntl.h. 
    * 
    * 
    * Ioctl's have the command encoded in the lower word, 
    * and the size of any in or out parameters in the upper 
    * word.  The high 2 bits of the upper word are used 
    * to encode the in/out status of the parameter; for now 
    * we restrict parameters to at most 128 bytes. 
    */ 
    #define IOCPARM_MASK    0x7f            /* parameters must be < 128 bytes */ 
    #define IOC_VOID        0x20000000      /* no parameters */ 
    #define IOC_OUT         0x40000000      /* copy out parameters */ 
    #define IOC_IN          0x80000000      /* copy in parameters */ 
    #define IOC_INOUT       (IOC_IN|IOC_OUT) 
                                            /* 0x20000000 distinguishes new & 
                                            old ioctl's */ 
    #define _IO(x,y)        (IOC_VOID|(x<<8)|y) 

    #define _IOR(x,y,t)     (IOC_OUT|(((long)sizeof(t)&IOCPARM_MASK)<<16)|(x<<8)|y) 

    #define _IOW(x,y,t)     (IOC_IN|(((long)sizeof(t)&IOCPARM_MASK)<<16)|(x<<8)|y) 

    #define FIONREAD    _IOR('f', 127, u_long) /* get # bytes to read */ 
    #define FIONBIO     _IOW('f', 126, u_long) /* set/clear non-blocking i/o */ 
    #define FIOASYNC    _IOW('f', 125, u_long) /* set/clear async i/o */ 

    /* Socket I/O Controls */ 
    #define SIOCSHIWAT  _IOW('s',  0, u_long)  /* set high watermark */ 
    #define SIOCGHIWAT  _IOR('s',  1, u_long)  /* get high watermark */ 
    #define SIOCSLOWAT  _IOW('s',  2, u_long)  /* set low watermark */ 
    #define SIOCGLOWAT  _IOR('s',  3, u_long)  /* get low watermark */ 
    #define SIOCATMARK  _IOR('s',  7, u_long)  /* at oob mark? */ 

    /* 
    * Structures returned by network data base library, taken from the 
    * BSD file netdb.h.  All addresses are supplied in host order, and 
    * returned in network order (suitable for use in system calls). 
    */ 

    struct  hostent { 
            char    FAR * h_name;           /* official name of host */ 
            char    FAR * FAR * h_aliases;  /* alias list */ 
            short   h_addrtype;             /* host address type */ 
            short   h_length;               /* length of address */ 
            char    FAR * FAR * h_addr_list; /* list of addresses */ 
    #define h_addr  h_addr_list[0]          /* address, for backward compat */ 
    }; 

    /* 
    * It is assumed here that a network number 
    * fits in 32 bits. 
    */ 
    struct  netent { 
            char    FAR * n_name;           /* official name of net */ 
            char    FAR * FAR * n_aliases;  /* alias list */ 
            short   n_addrtype;             /* net address type */ 
            u_long  n_net;                  /* network # */ 
    }; 

    struct  servent { 
            char    FAR * s_name;           /* official service name */ 
            char    FAR * FAR * s_aliases;  /* alias list */ 
            short   s_port;                 /* port # */ 
            char    FAR * s_proto;          /* protocol to use */ 
    }; 

    struct  protoent { 
            char    FAR * p_name;           /* official protocol name */ 
            char    FAR * FAR * p_aliases;  /* alias list */ 
            short   p_proto;                /* protocol # */ 
    }; 

    /* 
    * Constants and structures defined by the internet system, 
    * Per RFC 790, September 1981, taken from the BSD file netinet/in.h. 
    */ 

    /* 
    * Protocols 
    */ 
    #define IPPROTO_IP              0               /* dummy for IP */ 
    #define IPPROTO_ICMP            1               /* control message protocol */ 
    #define IPPROTO_GGP             2               /* gateway^2 (deprecated) */ 
    #define IPPROTO_TCP             6               /* tcp */ 
    #define IPPROTO_PUP             12              /* pup */ 
    #define IPPROTO_UDP             17              /* user datagram protocol */ 
    #define IPPROTO_IDP             22              /* xns idp */ 
    #define IPPROTO_ND              77              /* UNOFFICIAL net disk proto */ 

    #define IPPROTO_RAW             255             /* raw IP packet */ 
    #define IPPROTO_MAX             256 

    /* 
    * Port/socket numbers: network standard functions 
    */ 
    #define IPPORT_ECHO             7 
    #define IPPORT_DISCARD          9 
    #define IPPORT_SYSTAT           11 
    #define IPPORT_DAYTIME          13 
    #define IPPORT_NETSTAT          15 
    #define IPPORT_FTP              21 
    #define IPPORT_TELNET           23 
    #define IPPORT_SMTP             25 
    #define IPPORT_TIMESERVER       37 
    #define IPPORT_NAMESERVER       42 
    #define IPPORT_WHOIS            43 
    #define IPPORT_MTP              57 

    /* 
    * Port/socket numbers: host specific functions 
    */ 
    #define IPPORT_TFTP             69 
    #define IPPORT_RJE              77 
    #define IPPORT_FINGER           79 
    #define IPPORT_TTYLINK          87 
    #define IPPORT_SUPDUP           95 

    /* 
    * UNIX TCP sockets 
    */ 
    #define IPPORT_EXECSERVER       512 
    #define IPPORT_LOGINSERVER      513 
    #define IPPORT_CMDSERVER        514 
    #define IPPORT_EFSSERVER        520 

    /* 
    * UNIX UDP sockets 
    */ 
    #define IPPORT_BIFFUDP          512 
    #define IPPORT_WHOSERVER        513 
    #define IPPORT_ROUTESERVER      520 
                                            /* 520+1 also used */ 

    /* 
    * Ports < IPPORT_RESERVED are reserved for 
    * privileged processes (e.g. root). 
    */ 
    #define IPPORT_RESERVED         1024 

    /* 
    * Link numbers 
    */ 
    #define IMPLINK_IP              155 
    #define IMPLINK_LOWEXPER        156 
    #define IMPLINK_HIGHEXPER       158 

    /* 
    * Internet address (old style... should be updated) 
    */ 
    struct in_addr { 
            union { 
                    struct { u_char s_b1,s_b2,s_b3,s_b4; } S_un_b; 
                    struct { u_short s_w1,s_w2; } S_un_w; 
                    u_long S_addr; 
            } S_un; 
    #define s_addr  S_un.S_addr 
                                    /* can be used for most tcp & ip code */ 
    #define s_host  S_un.S_un_b.s_b2 
                                    /* host on imp */ 
    #define s_net   S_un.S_un_b.s_b1 
                                    /* network */ 
    #define s_imp   S_un.S_un_w.s_w2 
                                    /* imp */ 
    #define s_impno S_un.S_un_b.s_b4 
                                    /* imp # */ 
    #define s_lh    S_un.S_un_b.s_b3 
                                    /* logical host */ 
    }; 

    /* 
    * Definitions of bits in internet address integers. 
    * On subnets, the decomposition of addresses to host and net parts 
    * is done according to subnet mask, not the masks here. 
    */ 
    #define IN_CLASSA(i)            (((long)(i) & 0x80000000) == 0) 
    #define IN_CLASSA_NET           0xff000000 
    #define IN_CLASSA_NSHIFT        24 
    #define IN_CLASSA_HOST          0x00ffffff 
    #define IN_CLASSA_MAX           128 

    #define IN_CLASSB(i)            (((long)(i) & 0xc0000000) == 0x80000000) 
    #define IN_CLASSB_NET           0xffff0000 
    #define IN_CLASSB_NSHIFT        16 
    #define IN_CLASSB_HOST          0x0000ffff 
    #define IN_CLASSB_MAX           65536 

    #define IN_CLASSC(i)            (((long)(i) & 0xc0000000) == 0xc0000000) 
    #define IN_CLASSC_NET           0xffffff00 
    #define IN_CLASSC_NSHIFT        8 
    #define IN_CLASSC_HOST          0x000000ff 

    #define INADDR_ANY              (u_long)0x00000000 
    #define INADDR_LOOPBACK         0x7f000001 
    #define INADDR_BROADCAST        (u_long)0xffffffff     
    #define INADDR_NONE             0xffffffff 

    /* 
    * Socket address, internet style. 
    */ 
    struct sockaddr_in { 
            short   sin_family; 
            u_short sin_port; 
            struct  in_addr sin_addr; 
            char    sin_zero[8]; 
    }; 

    #define WSADESCRIPTION_LEN      256 
    #define WSASYS_STATUS_LEN       128 

    typedef struct WSAData { 
            WORD                    wVersion; 
            WORD                    wHighVersion; 
            char                    szDescription[WSADESCRIPTION_LEN+1]; 
            char                    szSystemStatus[WSASYS_STATUS_LEN+1]; 
            unsigned short          iMaxSockets; 
            unsigned short          iMaxUdpDg; 
            char FAR *              lpVendorInfo; 
    } WSADATA; 

    typedef WSADATA FAR *LPWSADATA; 

    /* 
    * Options for use with [gs]etsockopt at the IP level. 
    */ 
    #define IP_OPTIONS      1               /* set/get IP per-packet options */ 

    /* 
    * Definitions related to sockets: types, address families, options, 
    * taken from the BSD file sys/socket.h. 
    */ 

    /* 
    * This is used instead of -1, since the 
    * SOCKET type is unsigned. 
    */ 
    #define INVALID_SOCKET  (SOCKET)(~0) 
    #define SOCKET_ERROR            (-1) 

    /* 
    * Types 
    */ 
    #define SOCK_STREAM     1               /* stream socket */ 
    #define SOCK_DGRAM      2               /* datagram socket */ 
    #define SOCK_RAW        3               /* raw-protocol interface */ 
    #define SOCK_RDM        4               /* reliably-delivered message */ 
    #define SOCK_SEQPACKET  5               /* sequenced packet stream */ 

    /* 
    * Option flags per-socket. 
    */ 
    #define SO_DEBUG        0x0001          /* turn on debugging info recording */ 
    #define SO_ACCEPTCONN   0x0002          /* socket has had listen() */ 
    #define SO_REUSEADDR    0x0004          /* allow local address reuse */ 
    #define SO_KEEPALIVE    0x0008          /* keep connections alive */ 
    #define SO_DONTROUTE    0x0010          /* just use interface addresses */ 
    #define SO_BROADCAST    0x0020          /* permit sending of broadcast msgs */ 
    #define SO_USELOOPBACK  0x0040          /* bypass hardware when possible */ 
    #define SO_LINGER       0x0080          /* linger on close if data present */ 
    #define SO_OOBINLINE    0x0100          /* leave received OOB data in line */ 

    #define SO_DONTLINGER   (u_int)(~SO_LINGER) 

    /* 
    * Additional options. 
    */ 
    #define SO_SNDBUF       0x1001          /* send buffer size */ 
    #define SO_RCVBUF       0x1002          /* receive buffer size */ 
    #define SO_SNDLOWAT     0x1003          /* send low-water mark */ 
    #define SO_RCVLOWAT     0x1004          /* receive low-water mark */ 
    #define SO_SNDTIMEO     0x1005          /* send timeout */ 
    #define SO_RCVTIMEO     0x1006          /* receive timeout */ 
    #define SO_ERROR        0x1007          /* get error status and clear */ 
    #define SO_TYPE         0x1008          /* get socket type */ 

    /* 
    * TCP options. 
    */ 
    #define TCP_NODELAY     0x0001 

    /* 
    * Address families. 
    */ 
    #define AF_UNSPEC       0               /* unspecified */ 
    #define AF_UNIX         1               /* local to host (pipes, portals) */ 
    #define AF_INET         2               /* internetwork: UDP, TCP, etc. */ 
    #define AF_IMPLINK      3               /* arpanet imp addresses */ 
    #define AF_PUP          4               /* pup protocols: e.g. BSP */ 
    #define AF_CHAOS        5               /* mit CHAOS protocols */ 
    #define AF_NS           6               /* XEROX NS protocols */ 
    #define AF_ISO          7               /* ISO protocols */ 
    #define AF_OSI          AF_ISO          /* OSI is ISO */ 
    #define AF_ECMA         8               /* european computer manufacturers */ 
    #define AF_DATAKIT      9               /* datakit protocols */ 
    #define AF_CCITT        10              /* CCITT protocols, X.25 etc */ 
    #define AF_SNA          11              /* IBM SNA */ 
    #define AF_DECnet       12              /* DECnet */ 
    #define AF_DLI          13              /* Direct data link interface */ 
    #define AF_LAT          14              /* LAT */ 
    #define AF_HYLINK       15              /* NSC Hyperchannel */ 
    #define AF_APPLETALK    16              /* AppleTalk */ 
    #define AF_NETBIOS      17              /* NetBios-style addresses */ 

    #define AF_MAX          18 

    /* 
    * Structure used by kernel to store most 
    * addresses. 
    */ 
    struct sockaddr { 
            u_short sa_family;              /* address family */ 
            char    sa_data[14];            /* up to 14 bytes of direct address */ 
    }; 

    /* 
    * Structure used by kernel to pass protocol 
    * information in raw sockets. 
    */ 
    struct sockproto { 
            u_short sp_family;              /* address family */ 
            u_short sp_protocol;            /* protocol */ 
    }; 

    /* 
    * Protocol families, same as address families for now. 
    */ 
    #define PF_UNSPEC       AF_UNSPEC 
    #define PF_UNIX         AF_UNIX 
    #define PF_INET         AF_INET 
    #define PF_IMPLINK      AF_IMPLINK 
    #define PF_PUP          AF_PUP 
    #define PF_CHAOS        AF_CHAOS 
    #define PF_NS           AF_NS 
    #define PF_ISO          AF_ISO 
    #define PF_OSI          AF_OSI 
    #define PF_ECMA         AF_ECMA 
    #define PF_DATAKIT      AF_DATAKIT 
    #define PF_CCITT        AF_CCITT 
    #define PF_SNA          AF_SNA 
    #define PF_DECnet       AF_DECnet 
    #define PF_DLI          AF_DLI 
    #define PF_LAT          AF_LAT 
    #define PF_HYLINK       AF_HYLINK 
    #define PF_APPLETALK    AF_APPLETALK 

    #define PF_MAX          AF_MAX 

    /* 
    * Structure used for manipulating linger option. 
    */ 
    struct  linger { 
            u_short l_onoff;                /* option on/off */ 
            u_short l_linger;               /* linger time */ 
    }; 

    /* 
    * Level number for (get/set)sockopt() to apply to socket itself. 
    */ 
    #define SOL_SOCKET      0xffff          /* options for socket level */ 

    /* 
    * Maximum queue length specifiable by listen. 
    */ 
    #define SOMAXCONN       5 

    #define MSG_OOB         0x1             /* process out-of-band data */ 
    #define MSG_PEEK        0x2             /* peek at incoming message */ 
    #define MSG_DONTROUTE   0x4             /* send without using routing tables */ 

    #define MSG_MAXIOVLEN   16 

    /* 
    * Define constant based on rfc883, used by gethostbyxxxx() calls. 
    */ 
    #define MAXGETHOSTSTRUCT        1024 

    /* 
    * Define flags to be used with the WSAAsyncSelect() call. 
    */ 
    #define FD_READ         0x01 
    #define FD_WRITE        0x02 
    #define FD_OOB          0x04 
    #define FD_ACCEPT       0x08 
    #define FD_CONNECT      0x10 
    #define FD_CLOSE        0x20 

    /* 
    * All Windows Sockets error constants are biased by WSABASEERR from 
    * the "normal" 
    */ 
    #define WSABASEERR              10000 
    /* 
    * Windows Sockets definitions of regular Microsoft C error constants 
    */ 
    #define WSAEINTR                (WSABASEERR+4) 
    #define WSAEBADF                (WSABASEERR+9) 
    #define WSAEACCES               (WSABASEERR+13) 
    #define WSAEFAULT               (WSABASEERR+14) 
    #define WSAEINVAL               (WSABASEERR+22) 
    #define WSAEMFILE               (WSABASEERR+24) 

    /* 
    * Windows Sockets definitions of regular Berkeley error constants 
    */ 
    #define WSAEWOULDBLOCK          (WSABASEERR+35) 
    #define WSAEINPROGRESS          (WSABASEERR+36) 
    #define WSAEALREADY             (WSABASEERR+37) 
    #define WSAENOTSOCK             (WSABASEERR+38) 
    #define WSAEDESTADDRREQ         (WSABASEERR+39) 
    #define WSAEMSGSIZE             (WSABASEERR+40) 
    #define WSAEPROTOTYPE           (WSABASEERR+41) 
    #define WSAENOPROTOOPT          (WSABASEERR+42) 
    #define WSAEPROTONOSUPPORT      (WSABASEERR+43) 
    #define WSAESOCKTNOSUPPORT      (WSABASEERR+44) 
    #define WSAEOPNOTSUPP           (WSABASEERR+45) 
    #define WSAEPFNOSUPPORT         (WSABASEERR+46) 
    #define WSAEAFNOSUPPORT         (WSABASEERR+47) 
    #define WSAEADDRINUSE           (WSABASEERR+48) 
    #define WSAEADDRNOTAVAIL        (WSABASEERR+49) 
    #define WSAENETDOWN             (WSABASEERR+50) 
    #define WSAENETUNREACH          (WSABASEERR+51) 
    #define WSAENETRESET            (WSABASEERR+52) 
    #define WSAECONNABORTED         (WSABASEERR+53) 
    #define WSAECONNRESET           (WSABASEERR+54) 
    #define WSAENOBUFS              (WSABASEERR+55) 
    #define WSAEISCONN              (WSABASEERR+56) 
    #define WSAENOTCONN             (WSABASEERR+57) 
    #define WSAESHUTDOWN            (WSABASEERR+58) 
    #define WSAETOOMANYREFS         (WSABASEERR+59) 
    #define WSAETIMEDOUT            (WSABASEERR+60) 
    #define WSAECONNREFUSED         (WSABASEERR+61) 
    #define WSAELOOP                (WSABASEERR+62) 
    #define WSAENAMETOOLONG         (WSABASEERR+63) 
    #define WSAEHOSTDOWN            (WSABASEERR+64) 
    #define WSAEHOSTUNREACH         (WSABASEERR+65) 
    #define WSAENOTEMPTY            (WSABASEERR+66) 
    #define WSAEPROCLIM             (WSABASEERR+67) 
    #define WSAEUSERS               (WSABASEERR+68) 
    #define WSAEDQUOT               (WSABASEERR+69) 
    #define WSAESTALE               (WSABASEERR+70) 
    #define WSAEREMOTE              (WSABASEERR+71) 

    /* 
    * Extended Windows Sockets error constant definitions 
    */ 
    #define WSASYSNOTREADY          (WSABASEERR+91) 
    #define WSAVERNOTSUPPORTED      (WSABASEERR+92) 
    #define WSANOTINITIALISED       (WSABASEERR+93) 

    /* 
    * Error return codes from gethostbyname() and gethostbyaddr() 
    * (when using the resolver). Note that these errors are 
    * retrieved via WSAGetLastError() and must therefore follow 
    * the rules for avoiding clashes with error numbers from 
    * specific implementations or language run-time systems. 
    * For this reason the codes are based at WSABASEERR+1001. 
    * Note also that [WSA]NO_ADDRESS is defined only for 
    * compatibility purposes. 
    */ 

    #define h_errno         WSAGetLastError() 

    /* Authoritative Answer: Host not found */ 
    #define WSAHOST_NOT_FOUND       (WSABASEERR+1001) 
    #define HOST_NOT_FOUND          WSAHOST_NOT_FOUND 

    /* Non-Authoritative: Host not found, or SERVERFAIL */ 
    #define WSATRY_AGAIN            (WSABASEERR+1002) 
    #define TRY_AGAIN               WSATRY_AGAIN 

    /* Non recoverable errors, FORMERR, REFUSED, NOTIMP */ 
    #define WSANO_RECOVERY          (WSABASEERR+1003) 
    #define NO_RECOVERY             WSANO_RECOVERY 

    /* Valid name, no data record of requested type */ 
    #define WSANO_DATA              (WSABASEERR+1004) 
    #define NO_DATA                 WSANO_DATA 

    /* no address, look for MX record */ 
    #define WSANO_ADDRESS           WSANO_DATA 
    #define NO_ADDRESS              WSANO_ADDRESS 

    /* 
    * Windows Sockets errors redefined as regular Berkeley error constants 
    */ 
    #define EWOULDBLOCK             WSAEWOULDBLOCK 
    #define EINPROGRESS             WSAEINPROGRESS 
    #define EALREADY                WSAEALREADY 
    #define ENOTSOCK                WSAENOTSOCK 
    #define EDESTADDRREQ            WSAEDESTADDRREQ 
    #define EMSGSIZE                WSAEMSGSIZE 
    #define EPROTOTYPE              WSAEPROTOTYPE 
    #define ENOPROTOOPT             WSAENOPROTOOPT 
    #define EPROTONOSUPPORT         WSAEPROTONOSUPPORT 
    #define ESOCKTNOSUPPORT         WSAESOCKTNOSUPPORT 
    #define EOPNOTSUPP              WSAEOPNOTSUPP 
    #define EPFNOSUPPORT            WSAEPFNOSUPPORT 
    #define EAFNOSUPPORT            WSAEAFNOSUPPORT 
    #define EADDRINUSE              WSAEADDRINUSE 
    #define EADDRNOTAVAIL           WSAEADDRNOTAVAIL 
    #define ENETDOWN                WSAENETDOWN 
    #define ENETUNREACH             WSAENETUNREACH 
    #define ENETRESET               WSAENETRESET 
    #define ECONNABORTED            WSAECONNABORTED 
    #define ECONNRESET              WSAECONNRESET 
    #define ENOBUFS                 WSAENOBUFS 
    #define EISCONN                 WSAEISCONN 
    #define ENOTCONN                WSAENOTCONN 
    #define ESHUTDOWN               WSAESHUTDOWN 
    #define ETOOMANYREFS            WSAETOOMANYREFS 
    #define ETIMEDOUT               WSAETIMEDOUT 
    #define ECONNREFUSED            WSAECONNREFUSED 
    #define ELOOP                   WSAELOOP 
    #define ENAMETOOLONG            WSAENAMETOOLONG 
    #define EHOSTDOWN               WSAEHOSTDOWN 
    #define EHOSTUNREACH            WSAEHOSTUNREACH 
    #define ENOTEMPTY               WSAENOTEMPTY 
    #define EPROCLIM                WSAEPROCLIM 
    #define EUSERS                  WSAEUSERS 
    #define EDQUOT                  WSAEDQUOT 
    #define ESTALE                  WSAESTALE 
    #define EREMOTE                 WSAEREMOTE 

    /* Socket function prototypes */ 

    #ifdef __cplusplus 
    extern "C" { 
    #endif 

    SOCKET PASCAL FAR accept (SOCKET s, struct sockaddr FAR *addr, 
                            int FAR *addrlen); 

    int PASCAL FAR bind (SOCKET s, const struct sockaddr FAR *addr, int namelen); 

    int PASCAL FAR closesocket (SOCKET s); 

    int PASCAL FAR connect (SOCKET s, const struct sockaddr FAR *name, int namelen); 

    int PASCAL FAR ioctlsocket (SOCKET s, long cmd, u_long FAR *argp); 

    int PASCAL FAR getpeername (SOCKET s, struct sockaddr FAR *name, 
                                int FAR * namelen); 

    int PASCAL FAR getsockname (SOCKET s, struct sockaddr FAR *name, 
                                int FAR * namelen); 

    int PASCAL FAR getsockopt (SOCKET s, int level, int optname, 
                            char FAR * optval, int FAR *optlen); 

    u_long PASCAL FAR htonl (u_long hostlong); 

    u_short PASCAL FAR htons (u_short hostshort); 

    unsigned long PASCAL FAR inet_addr (const char FAR * cp); 

    char FAR * PASCAL FAR inet_ntoa (struct in_addr in); 

    int PASCAL FAR listen (SOCKET s, int backlog); 

    u_long PASCAL FAR ntohl (u_long netlong); 

    u_short PASCAL FAR ntohs (u_short netshort); 

    int PASCAL FAR recv (SOCKET s, char FAR * buf, int len, int flags); 

    int PASCAL FAR recvfrom (SOCKET s, char FAR * buf, int len, int flags, 
                            struct sockaddr FAR *from, int FAR * fromlen); 

    int PASCAL FAR select (int nfds, fd_set FAR *readfds, fd_set FAR *writefds, 
                        fd_set FAR *exceptfds, const struct timeval FAR *timeout); 

    int PASCAL FAR send (SOCKET s, const char FAR * buf, int len, int flags); 

    int PASCAL FAR sendto (SOCKET s, const char FAR * buf, int len, int flags, 
                        const struct sockaddr FAR *to, int tolen); 

    int PASCAL FAR setsockopt (SOCKET s, int level, int optname, 
                            const char FAR * optval, int optlen); 

    int PASCAL FAR shutdown (SOCKET s, int how); 

    SOCKET PASCAL FAR socket (int af, int type, int protocol); 

    /* Database function prototypes */ 

    struct hostent FAR * PASCAL FAR gethostbyaddr(const char FAR * addr, 
                                                int len, int type); 

    struct hostent FAR * PASCAL FAR gethostbyname(const char FAR * name); 

    int PASCAL FAR gethostname (char FAR * name, int namelen); 

    struct servent FAR * PASCAL FAR getservbyport(int port, const char FAR * proto); 

    struct servent FAR * PASCAL FAR getservbyname(const char FAR * name, 
                                                const char FAR * proto); 

    struct protoent FAR * PASCAL FAR getprotobynumber(int proto); 

    struct protoent FAR * PASCAL FAR getprotobyname(const char FAR * name); 

    /* Microsoft Windows Extension function prototypes */ 

    int PASCAL FAR WSAStartup(WORD wVersionRequired, LPWSADATA lpWSAData); 

    int PASCAL FAR WSACleanup(void); 

    void PASCAL FAR WSASetLastError(int iError); 

    int PASCAL FAR WSAGetLastError(void); 

    BOOL PASCAL FAR WSAIsBlocking(void); 

    int PASCAL FAR WSAUnhookBlockingHook(void); 

    FARPROC PASCAL FAR WSASetBlockingHook(FARPROC lpBlockFunc); 

    int PASCAL FAR WSACancelBlockingCall(void); 

    HANDLE PASCAL FAR WSAAsyncGetServByName(HWND hWnd, u_int wMsg, 
                                            const char FAR * name,  
                                            const char FAR * proto, 
                                            char FAR * buf, int buflen); 

    HANDLE PASCAL FAR WSAAsyncGetServByPort(HWND hWnd, u_int wMsg, int port, 
                                            const char FAR * proto, char FAR * buf, 
                                            int buflen); 

    HANDLE PASCAL FAR WSAAsyncGetProtoByName(HWND hWnd, u_int wMsg, 
                                            const char FAR * name, char FAR * buf, 
                                            int buflen); 

    HANDLE PASCAL FAR WSAAsyncGetProtoByNumber(HWND hWnd, u_int wMsg, 
                                            int number, char FAR * buf, 
                                            int buflen); 

    HANDLE PASCAL FAR WSAAsyncGetHostByName(HWND hWnd, u_int wMsg, 
                                            const char FAR * name, char FAR * buf, 
                                            int buflen); 

    HANDLE PASCAL FAR WSAAsyncGetHostByAddr(HWND hWnd, u_int wMsg, 
                                            const char FAR * addr, int len, int type, 
                                            const char FAR * buf, int buflen); 

    int PASCAL FAR WSACancelAsyncRequest(HANDLE hAsyncTaskHandle); 

    int PASCAL FAR WSAAsyncSelect(SOCKET s, HWND hWnd, u_int wMsg, 
                                long lEvent); 

    #ifdef __cplusplus 
    } 
    #endif 

    /* Microsoft Windows Extended data types */ 
    typedef struct sockaddr SOCKADDR; 
    typedef struct sockaddr *PSOCKADDR; 
    typedef struct sockaddr FAR *LPSOCKADDR; 

    typedef struct sockaddr_in SOCKADDR_IN; 
    typedef struct sockaddr_in *PSOCKADDR_IN; 
    typedef struct sockaddr_in FAR *LPSOCKADDR_IN; 

    typedef struct linger LINGER; 
    typedef struct linger *PLINGER; 
    typedef struct linger FAR *LPLINGER; 

    typedef struct in_addr IN_ADDR; 
    typedef struct in_addr *PIN_ADDR; 
    typedef struct in_addr FAR *LPIN_ADDR; 

    typedef struct fd_set FD_SET; 
    typedef struct fd_set *PFD_SET; 
    typedef struct fd_set FAR *LPFD_SET; 

    typedef struct hostent HOSTENT; 
    typedef struct hostent *PHOSTENT; 
    typedef struct hostent FAR *LPHOSTENT; 

    typedef struct servent SERVENT; 
    typedef struct servent *PSERVENT; 
    typedef struct servent FAR *LPSERVENT; 

    typedef struct protoent PROTOENT; 
    typedef struct protoent *PPROTOENT; 
    typedef struct protoent FAR *LPPROTOENT; 

    typedef struct timeval TIMEVAL; 
    typedef struct timeval *PTIMEVAL; 
    typedef struct timeval FAR *LPTIMEVAL; 

    /* 
    * Windows message parameter composition and decomposition 
    * macros. 
    * 
    * WSAMAKEASYNCREPLY is intended for use by the Windows Sockets implementation 
    * when constructing the response to a WSAAsyncGetXByY() routine. 
    */ 
    #define WSAMAKEASYNCREPLY(buflen,error)     MAKELONG(buflen,error) 
    /* 
    * WSAMAKESELECTREPLY is intended for use by the Windows Sockets implementation 
    * when constructing the response to WSAAsyncSelect(). 
    */ 
    #define WSAMAKESELECTREPLY(event,error)     MAKELONG(event,error) 
    /* 
    * WSAGETASYNCBUFLEN is intended for use by the Windows Sockets application 
    * to extract the buffer length from the lParam in the response 
    * to a WSAGetXByY(). 
    */ 
    #define WSAGETASYNCBUFLEN(lParam)           LOWORD(lParam) 
    /* 
    * WSAGETASYNCERROR is intended for use by the Windows Sockets application 
    * to extract the error code from the lParam in the response 
    * to a WSAGetXByY(). 
    */ 
    #define WSAGETASYNCERROR(lParam)            HIWORD(lParam) 
    /* 
    * WSAGETSELECTEVENT is intended for use by the Windows Sockets application 
    * to extract the event code from the lParam in the response 
    * to a WSAAsyncSelect(). 
    */ 
    #define WSAGETSELECTEVENT(lParam)           LOWORD(lParam) 
    /* 
    * WSAGETSELECTERROR is intended for use by the Windows Sockets application 
    * to extract the error code from the lParam in the response 
    * to a WSAAsyncSelect(). 
    */ 
    #define WSAGETSELECTERROR(lParam)           HIWORD(lParam) 

    #endif  /* _WINSOCKAPI_ */ 

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